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    MAIN STAGES OF FIRE PROTECTION

    Fire Protection Rules define the concept of fire protection treatment as specialized treatment of the material, structure, product for the purpose of their fire protection. The need for fire protection of structures is determined in accordance with the applicable laws of Ukraine, which determine the fire resistance classes of these structures, namely, DBN B. 1.1-7: 2016, DBN B.1.2-7-2008 and other regulations for buildings of different functional purposes. The issue of the use of fire protective materials on the construction site is considered depending on the degree of fire resistance of the building and the required fire resistance classes of structures.

    The algorithm of fire protection works includes the following main stages:

    1. Determining the degree of fire resistance of the building;

    2. Determining fire resistance classes of building structures for the respective degree of fire resistance of the building;

    3. Analysis of the conditions of fire protection works, operation of the fire protective coating, customer’s requests for types of fire protective materials and other factors;

    4. Selection of fire protective materials subject to regulatory, aesthetic, economic and other factors;

    5. Development of a design of fire protection works;

    6. Fire protective treatment of building structures;

    7. Delivery and acceptance of completed fire protection works;

    8. Maintenance (maintenance of serviceability) of fire protection in the course of operation.

    Let us consider each of the stages of fire protection.

    Determining the degree of fire resistance of the building.

    The degree of fire resistance of a building is a characteristic of its fire safety, which characterizes the ability of building structures and building elements to maintain their load-bearing and enclosing capacity, as well as to prevent the spread of fire.

    The required minimum values of fire resistance limits of building (steel) structures for different degrees of fire resistance of buildings are given in DBN B.1.1-7: 2016 and other national standards on design of buildings of different functional purpose and number of floors, for example, DBN B.2.2-24, DBN B. 2.2-15, etc.

    All buildings and structures are divided into eight degrees of fire resistance, which are established depending on the purpose, category of explosion and fire hazard of the building, its height (number of floors), area of the floor within the fire compartment.

    Degree of fire resistance of buildings and fire resistance classes of building structures

    Degree of fire resistance

     

    Walls

    Columns

    Staircase landings, notch-boards, steps, stairs, beams, stairwells

    Intermediate floors (including attic and above basements) 

    Elements of combined floors

    Load-bearing members and stairwells

    Self-supporting members

    External not load-bearing members

    Internal not load-bearing members (partitions)

    slabs,

    flooring, joists

    Beams, girders,

    arches, frames

    І

    REI 150

    M0

    REI 90 M0

    E 30

    M0

    EI 30 M0

    R 150 M0

    R 60

    M0

    REI 60

    M0

    RE 30

    M0

    R 30

    M0

    ІІ

    REI 120 M0

    REI 60 M0

    E15

    M0

    EI 15 M0

    R 120 M0

    R 60

    M0

    REI 45

    M0

    RE 15

    M0

    R 30

    M0

    ІІІ

    REI 120 M0

    REI 60 M0

    E15, M0

    E30, M1

    EI 15 M1

    R 120 M0

    R 60

    M0

    REI 45

    M1

    Not rated

    ІІІа

    REI 60 M0

    REI 30 M0

    E15

    M1

    EI 15 M1

    R 15 M0

    R 60

    M0

    REI 15

    M0

    RE 15

    M1

    R 15

    M0

    ІІІb

    REI 60 M1

    REI 30 M1

    E15, M0

    E30, M1

    EI 15 M1

    R 60 M1

    R 45

    M0

    REI 45

    M1

    RE 15, М0

    RE 30, M1

    R 45

    M1

    ІV

    REI 30 M1

    REI 15 M1

    E15

    M1

    EI 15 M1

    R 30 M1

    R 15

    M1

    REI 15

    M1

    Not rated

    IVa

    REI 30 M1

    REI 15 M1

    E15

    М2

    EI 15 M1

    R 15 M0

    R 15

    M0

    REI 15

    M0

    RE 15

    М2

    R 15

    M0

    V

    Not rated

    Note 1. Classes of fire resistance of building structures are determined depending on the rated limit conditions and fire resistance limits in accordance with DBN B.1.2-7, DSTU B V.1.1-4 determined in Annex D.

    Note 2. The fire resistance class of self-supporting walls, which are taken in account in calculations of stiffness and stability of the building, is take equal to that of load-bearing walls.

    Note 3. Groups of propagation of fire by building structures are determined by the methods given in Annex E.

    Determining fire resistance classes of building structures for the respective degree of fire resistance of the building

    The principal objectives of the rating of fire resistance classes of building structures include:

    • setting fire resistance requirements for a specified but limited period of time, when the necessary evacuation and fire extinguishing and rescue measures can be carried out;

    • setting fire resistance requirements for the main structure, subject to which it will not lose its basic functional characteristics in the event of complete combustion of all combustible materials, without engagement of fire and rescue units.

    DBN B.1.1-7: 2016 indicates that the fire resistance class of individual building structures can be specified in the relevant regulations depending on the building type. At the same time, the fire resistance limit may be reduced by 30 minutes for building structures that have a rated fire resistance limit of more than 60 minutes, if it is stipulated by building codes by types of buildings and structures.

    Analysis of the conditions of fire protection works, operation of the fire protective coating, customer’s requests for types of fire protective materials and other factors

    Before selecting a fire protective material for a fire protection facility and starting designing and further use, you should determine a number of factors:

    - what fire resistance class is rated for a particular building structure and what types of fire protective materials can provide it in accordance with the documents on conformity - certificate of conformity, test report, document confirming the calculation of fire resistance of the building structure with fire protective elements;

     - what will be the conditions of use and further operation of the fire protective covering — ambient temperature and relative humidity, degree of preparation of the surface for fire protection, etc.;

    - what will be the cost of fire protective material and work on its application per unit of area of the building structure;

    - customer's requirements for fire protection of the construction project regarding the selection of the type of fire protective materials — fire protective paints, plasters, plates, etc.

    Selection of fire protective materials subject to regulatory, aesthetic, economic and other factors.

    This stage includes the selection of fire protective material from the list of those permitted for use for the given type of building structure (beam structures, columns, etc.), based on the analysis of the conditions of the previous clause.

    It should be noted that fire protective materials permitted for use are materials that have Ukrainian documents on assessment of conformity (certificates of conformity, test reports, documents confirming fire resistance of a building structure with fire protection elements by the method of mathematical calculation), Regulation on Fire Protection Works (a document that includes the procedure for the use of fire protective material according to the Fire Protection Rules) and other permits for the safe use of a particular material.

    Development of a project on fire protection works.

    The design of fire protective treatment is developed by an organization that has specialists in civil engineering design in terms of compliance with fire safety requirements of the relevant responsibility class of buildings. Design can be developed both as part of the design and estimate documentation for the entire facility as a whole, and for individual structures for which fire protection is required. The design is developed on the basis of the architectural and layout solution taking into account the stress and strain condition of building structures and the possible impact of fire, as well as on the basis of the regulations on the fire protection means used. The designed fire protective materials must correspond to the scope of the fire protective means and the operating conditions of the arranged covering.

    Fire protective treatment of building structures.

    The main document that regulates the works on fire protection of building structures in Ukraine is the Fire Protection Rules.

    In general, the work to increase the fire resistance limit of steel structures to rated values involves several main stages:

    · Preparation of the surface of the metal structures for subsequent fire protection treatment;

    · Preparation of the fire protective means for use;

    · Application of the fire protective means on the structure (painting, cladding, plastering);

    · Treatment of the arranged fire protective surface – application of finishing and protective layers (if necessary);

    · Delivery and acceptance of the works performed;

    · Measures to maintain the proper technical condition of the fire protective covering throughout its service life.

    Works on the arrangement of fire protective treatment of building structures must be performed by a specialized organization that has a license for the appropriate types of work. Fire protection works are performed on the basis of the design of fire protection works and requirements of the Regulation on Fire Protection Works, which should specify the area and the procedure for application of the material, time and conditions of its operation, procedure for maintenance and replacement (repeated fire protection treatment), as well as safe working conditions and environmental protection requirements for its use.

    Delivery and acceptance of completed fire protection works.

    In accordance with the requirements of the Fire Protection Rules, delivery and acceptance of the performed fire protection works (check of the conformity of fire protection) is carried out after the works on fire protection treatment are completed. For this purpose, the customer establishes a commission, and last but not least, independently appoints its members! The commission must include representatives of the customer and the contractor. Representatives of the design organization, manufacturer of the fire protection material, fire inspectorate and conformity assessment bodies (third party) may also be engaged (with their consent).

     When the conformity of fire protection is checked, the quality of work, their conformity to the requirements of the design documentation and the Regulation on Fire Protection, as well as other regulatory and technical documents are checked.

    The quality of work is checked by:

    - an external inspection of the fire protective covering for the absence of gaps, uniform application, etc.;

    - measuring the thickness of the fire protective covering;

    - other laboratory testing methods (at the customer’s choice)

    In the absence of violations, the results of the work of the commission are recorded in a report on inspection of conformity of fire protection, which is stored at the construction site throughout the service life of the fire protection covering.

    Maintenance (maintenance of serviceability) of fire protection in the course of operation.

    Measures to maintain the covering in the appropriate technical condition must be taken during the entire service life of the fire protection. For this purpose, the organization operating the construction facility, on which the fire protection work is performed, appoints a person responsible for maintenance of the fire protection coating in good condition.

    The responsible person supervises the technical condition of the fire protection covering in accordance with the requirements of the fire protection design and regulations on the works. In case of detection of damage to the fire protection covering, measures are taken to restore, repair or replace the fire protection covering.

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